Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking PDF ´ for Smart

Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking I read Think Fast and Slow last year, and thought it would be good to read Mindware to refresh my mind via a different angle But I am a bit disappointed I read the 1st half of the book, and skim through the rest of the book The author has some good points But in deed, it needs professional edits such that normal readers like me can get the points loud and straight I wouldn t recommend the book if you have read Think Fast and Slow Notes I took Mindware Tools for Smart Thinking Richa I read Think Fast and Slow last year, and thought it would be good to read Mindware to refresh my mind via a different angle But I am a bit disappointed I read the 1st half of the book, and skim through the rest of the book The author has some good points But in deed, it needs professional edits such that normal readers like me can get the points loud and straight I wouldn t recommend the book if you have read Think Fast and Slow Notes I took Mindware Tools for Smart Thinking Richard E Nisbett Introduction The mind is like a muscle in some ways but not all Lifting pretty much everything will make you stronger But thinking about anything in any way is not likely to make you smarter Some concepts and rules you are trying to learn is useless and some are priceless Two very different types of reasoning o Eastern habits of thought, Dialectical o Western habits of thought, Logic Self reports about motives and goals can be highly unreliable not for reason of self protection, but because so much of mental life is inaccessible we have no direct access at all to our thought process Inferential rules can be learned We need to extend the reach of inferential rules to problems of everyday life The key is learning how to frame events in such a way that the relevance of the principles to the solutions of particular problem can be applied Part I Thinking about ThoughtsSchemas We have schemas for virtually everything we encounter E.g fancy restaurant quiet, elegant d cor, expensive We depend on schemas for construal of the objects we encounter and the nature of the situation we are in Schemas and Stereotypes affect our behavior and our judgements Bodily state impacts cognitive stream o Judgement 0% for parole if hearing takes place before lunch, 66% for parole if hearing takes place after lunch.o Want someone to find you warm and cuddly Hand them a cup of coffee to hold, and don t by any means make that an iced coffee Abraham Lincoln I don t like that man I must get to know him better To add, vary the circumstances of the encounters as much as possible Framing can affect decisions that are literally a matter of death.The Power of SituationThe failure to recognize the importance of contexts and situations and the consequent overestimation of the role of personal dispositions is, the most pervasive and consequential inferential mistake we make fundamental attribution error.Social influence You are the average of the five people you spend the most time with Jim Rohn People performenergetically not just when they are in competition with others but even when other people are merely observing One of a parent s most important and challenging roles is to make sure their acquaintances are likely to be good influences Payattention to context This will imporove the odds that you will correctly identify situational factors that are influencing your behavior and that of others Realize that situaltional factors usually influence your behavior and that of othersthan they seem to, whereas dispositional factors are usually less influenctial than they seem Realize that other people think their behavior isresponsive to situational facors than you are inclined to think and they arelikely to be right than you are.Unconcious vs Concious Don t assume that you know why you think what you think or do what you do don t assume that other people s accounts of their reasons or motives are anylikely to be right than are your accounts of your own reasons or motives Don t ever fail to take the advantage of the free labor of the unconscious mind.o When is the right time to begin working on a term paper due the last day of class Answer the first day of class So you have plenty of time letting your conscious mind making progress on a problem, and when you stuck, drop it and turn to your unconscious mind to solve it.Part II The Formerly Dismal Science Cost benefits analysiso When making a decision of minor importance, I have always found it advantageous to consider all the pros and cons In vital matters, however the decision should come from the unconscious, from somewhere within ourselves It is important to be aware of the fact that the heart is also influenced by information As I pointed out in the previous chapter, the unconscious needs all possible relevant information, and some of this information will be generated only by conscious processes Consciously acquired information can then be added to unconscious information, and the unconscious will then calculate an answer that it delivers to the conscious mind Do by all means perform your cost benefit analysis for the decisions that really matter to you And then throw it away Sunk Costo The sunk cost principle says that only future benefits and costs should figure in your choices o The money you already paid for is long gone it s sunk and you cannot get it back.o The economist s motto Nothing the cost that already incurred that happened yesterday can be retrieved No use crying over spilt milk.o Don t throw good money after bad, that bad money is sunk The same applies to politician who urges continuing a war, puttinglives at risk so that the fallen shall not have died in vain Opportunity Costo An opportunity cost is defined as the cost of engaging in a given course of action, thereby losing the benefits of the next best action o This principle holds where resources are limited and the chosen action precludes taking any other action.o The cost is not the sum of the unchosen alternatives but just the best unchosen alternative.o There s no free lunch Any action you take means you can t take some other action that, upon reflection, you might prefer Falling into the sunk cost trap always entails paying unnecessary opportunity costs People who make explicit cost benefit decisions and avoid sunk costs and opportunity costs aresuccessful Loss Aversion produce inertia o A great tendency to avoid giving up what we already have Taking a sure loss versus a possible gain is painful o Sending people a 20 dollor voucher they can use for ticket purchase nets 70%ticker sales than mailing them a letter with a promo code for a 20 dollor discount.o Structuring decision some ways of structuring decisions result in better outcome for individuals and for society than the other ways of structuring decisions E.g make what choice as the default choice, opt in or opt out Incentive When we try to inclufene the vehavior of others, we are too ready to think interms of conventional incentivies carrots and sticks Rather than pushing people or pulling people, try removing barriers and creting channels that make the most sensivle behavior the easiest option.Part III Coding, Counting, Correlation, and CausalityDispersion and Regression The normal distribution is a mathematical abstraction, the number of eggs laid weekly by different hens, the number of erros per week in the manufacture of car transmissions, and the IQ test scores are all arrayed in something called a normal distribution, which is captured by the so called bell curve No one knows why that s the case it just is Observations of objects or events should often be thought of as samples of a population The fundamental attribution error is primarily due to our tendency to ignore situational factors, but this is compounded by our failure to recognize that a brief exposure to a person constitutes a small sampe of a person s behavior Increasing sample size reduces error only if the sample is unbiased The standard deviation is a handy measure of the dispersion of a continuous variable around the mean.Correlation Covariation Linked Up Accurate assessment of relationships can be remarkably difficult If a person is prepared to see a given relationship, that relationship is likely to be seen even when it s not in the data If you are counterprepared to see a given relationship, you are likely to fail to see it even when it s there You cannot rely on your belief that there a correlation between two variables unless the association is quite strong You got to be systematic to get it right observe, record, and calculate or your are just blowing smoke The most effective way to avoid making unjustifiably strong inferences about someone s personality is to remind yourself that a person s behavior can only be consistent from one occasion to another if the context is the same Be cautious and humble when you try to predict future trait related behavior, remind yourself that you may be overgeneralizing unless sample of behavior is large and obtained in a variety of situations.Part IV Experiments Assumptions tend to be wrong A B testing is child simple in principle create a procedure you want to examine, generate a control condition, flip a coin to see who or what gets which treatment, and see what happens Correlational designs are weak because the researcher hasn t assigned the cases to their condition The greater the number of the cases, the greater the likelihood you will find a real effect Multiple Regression Analysis MRA examines the associations between an independent variable and a dependent variable, controlling for the association between the independent variable and other variables, as well as the association of those other varables with the dependent variable The method can tell us about causality only if all possible causal influences have been identified and measured reliably and validly In practice, these conditions are rarely met.Part VI Knowing the World Explanations should be kept simple They should call on as few concepts as possible, defined as simple as possible Effects that are the same should be explained by the same cause Reductionism in the service of simplicity is a virture reductionism for its own sake can be a vice Learn how to think effectively, at work and at home Many scientific and philosophical ideas are so powerful that they can be applied to our lives at home and work and school to help us think smarter and effectively about our behaviour and the world around us Surprisingly, many of these ideas remain unknown to most of us In Mindware, the world renowned psychologist Richard Nisbett presents these ideas in clear and accessible detail, offering a tool kit for better thinking and wiser decisions He has made a distinguished career of studying and teaching such powerful problem solving concepts as the law of large numbers, statistical regression, cost benefit analysis, sunk costs and opportunity costs, and causation and correlation, probing how best to teach others to use them effectively in their daily lives In this groundbreaking book, he shows that a course in a given field statistics or economics, for example often doesn t work as well as a few minutes of practical instruction in analyzing everyday situations Mindware shows how to reframe common problems in such a way that these powerful scientific and statistical concepts can be applied to them The result is an enlightening and practical guide to the most powerful tools of reasoning ever developed tools that can easily be used to make better professional, business and personal decisions ❰PDF / Epub❯ ☀ Poltergeist (Greywalker, Author Kat Richardson – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk at work and at home Many scientific and philosophical ideas are so powerful that they can be applied to our lives at home and work and school to help us think smarter and effectively about our behaviour and the world around us Surprisingly ➣ [Epub] ➝ OBaby By Geoffrey Johnson ➭ – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk many of these ideas remain unknown to most of us In Mindware ❰Download❯ ➽ Defiant (MacKinnons Rangers, Author Pamela Clare – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk the world renowned psychologist Richard Nisbett presents these ideas in clear and accessible detail ❥ [KINDLE] ❂ 21 Divisiones de Los Misterios Sanses By Ernesto Bravo Estrada ➢ – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk offering a tool kit for better thinking and wiser decisions He has made a distinguished career of studying and teaching such powerful problem solving concepts as the law of large numbers ❴EPUB❵ ✺ Nightfall (Dark Age Dawning, Author Ellen Connor – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk statistical regression [KINDLE] ❅ The Good Daughter ❥ Karin Slaughter – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk cost benefit analysis [Read] ➵ Crysis Author Peter Watts – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk sunk costs and opportunity costs ➿ [Download] ➽ Fractured (Will Trent, By Karin Slaughter ➵ – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk and causation and correlation ❰Epub❯ ➜ Ghost Author Fred Burton – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk probing how best to teach others to use them effectively in their daily lives In this groundbreaking book [Reading] ➷ Nerve By Dick Francis – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk he shows that a course in a given field statistics or economics [Download] ➾ Cinco Dias de Vida By Julie Lawson Timmer – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk for example often doesn t work as well as a few minutes of practical instruction in analyzing everyday situations Mindware shows how to reframe common problems in such a way that these powerful scientific and statistical concepts can be applied to them The result is an enlightening and practical guide to the most powerful tools of reasoning ever developed tools that can easily be used to make better professional [Read] ➮ Backstage ➶ Nikki Turner – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk business and personal decisions There s no doubt that Richard Nisbett s book, subtitled tools for smart thinking is great, despite two issues I want to get those issues out of the way first before we get onto the good stuff, with which it is packed One issue is the writing style This is a touch clumsy and could do with a little professional help Nisbett has a tendency to overuse unnecessary jargon in sentences like this Our construal of objects and events is influenced not just by the schemas that are activated in partic There s no doubt that Richard Nisbett s book, subtitled tools for smart thinking is great, despite two issues I want to get those issues out of the way first before we get onto the good stuff, with which it is packed One issue is the writing style This is a touch clumsy and could do with a little professional help Nisbett has a tendency to overuse unnecessary jargon in sentences like this Our construal of objects and events is influenced not just by the schemas that are activated in particular contexts, but by the framing of judgments we have to make.Nor ideally worded The second issue I suspect comesfrom the publisher, which is the attempt to frame this book sorry, couldn t resist the italics as a self help title as much as popular science It doesn t work particularly well as a practical self help toolkit it s not structured in a way to make this a good use, particularly because a large part of the book is focused on how we get things wrong, rather than how to do things better.But what makes this book a pure delight is the way that it analyses our human take on the world and shows the flaws in the typical ways that we think which, if overcome, would enable us to make better decisions Some of this is fairly theoretical, starting with the nature of inference and exploring the holes in the Popperian disdain for inference, but there s also an exploration of the results of a plethora of experiments which take everyday decisions and situations and try to understand what is happening.One great example is over the analytic input of the subconscious Nisbett shows us how the old saw about leaving a problem overnight to reach a better decision really works He describes an experiment where different people are shown a range of apartments and asked to decide which is best As always with psychology experiments, there is room for questioning here as best is so subjective with accommodation, but the experimenters try their best using a series of criteria against which each apartment is scored The subjects are divided into three groups Some have to make an almost instant decision, others are allowed to weigh up the pros and cons, while a third group doesn t actually think about the problem but makes their decision after sleeping on it By far the best results come from the third group, while the instant decision maker are as effective as those weighing up the options This neatly takes the wind out of the usual moan that people make a decision about house buying far too quickly The subconscious can do a surprising amount of the heavy lifting for us though, as Nisbett points out, it s hopeless at doing sums.A very interesting section for those who are fans of Freakonomics and its successor books is where Nisbett tears apart a technique often used in the Freak decision process multiple regression analysis, where the idea is to analyse data by correcting for various unwanted variables, leaving the one being studied dominant Nisbett, tongue in cheek, refers to it as eekonomics It s an infamously poor approach the reason why cohort studies on diet etc are so difficult to use , because it s almost impossible to be sure you ve allowed for all the variables, and the impact of some can be littlethan guesswork Instead, Nisbett suggests, it would be much better to do farexperimental work in these fields, with proper double blind controls, even though he admits that s not always possible.With other sections on correlation versus causality, sample sizes, the nature of logic and dialectic, and , there s plenty of meat here in a truly fascinating read about the nature of human decision making, where it goes wrong and how at least in principle we could do it better It s not always big stuff He points out how we often fail to deal with the way that money we ve spent is already written off There s no point carrying on with something you are now getting no value out of due to changing circumstances, or a bad initial decision, just because you ve already spent a lot on it Yet we all tend to do it as do governments.The part contrasting Western logic with Eastern dialectic towards the end of the book is probably the least satisfactory as it doesn t really explain how the dialectic approach can produce specific useful results rather than fuzzy statements, but it s still interesting Overall, an ideal book for anyone who raises an eyebrow at statistics in the press If, for example, you are a fan of Radio 4 s More or Less, this book takes the whole look at the way we make informed decisions using numbers to a new level If you ve been hiding under a rock the last 10 years and missed Predictably Irrational by Dan Ariely or Freakonomics by Steven Levitt or Switch by Chip Heath then Mindware might interest you I didn t find anything new here but books about critical thinking should never be dismissed The world needs them too much. Disappointed My favorite author Malcolm Gladwell endorsed this book therefore I automatically bought it Human behavior is one of my favorite topics, but somehow this author found the way to make it boring Lots of redundant examples and technical word choices made this a painful read. One of the many books trying to teach rationality, some sense of statistics, avoiding logical fallacies Can t hurt to read one of those now and then Overall, the well know things in the end of the book the writer goes a bit overboard with trying to find some western thought eastern thought syncretism, without too much evidence for it.Not a bad read, but, to paraphrase Churchill, the good stuff wasn t very original, and the original stuff wasn t very good. The information here is generally interesting and I enjoyed numerous nuggets of debunking But I can t give this book a great review because some of his points are logically and factually wrong For example, he confuses stock market volatility with risk of loss, ignoring the evidence and expert advice from Warren Buffett Most disappointingly, his overall conclusion is a mess He tells us to trust the consensus of experts This defeats the purpose of the book, which is to teach the reader how to The information here is generally interesting and I enjoyed numerous nuggets of debunking But I can t give this book a great review because some of his points are logically and factually wrong For example, he confuses stock market volatility with risk of loss, ignoring the evidence and expert advice from Warren Buffett Most disappointingly, his overall conclusion is a mess He tells us to trust the consensus of experts This defeats the purpose of the book, which is to teach the reader how to do smart thinking It also self contradicts the preceding chapter on scientific revolutions where he explains how all the experts can be wrong In his defense, he admits multiple times that it s very difficult to do smart thinking and that he fails at it frequently Too bad for the reader It took me a while to read this book I did it at 15 pages a day and that was doable I had taught logic at a private high school and was interested in all Nisbett had to say I was amazed at how easy it is to make mistakes in thinking, reasoning, and deciding He has lots of ideas on how we can reason better We are easily fooled by advertisements, the way they are constructed and the words used I liked the way he identified how our thinking is influenced before he gave the tools to think in a It took me a while to read this book I did it at 15 pages a day and that was doable I had taught logic at a private high school and was interested in all Nisbett had to say I was amazed at how easy it is to make mistakes in thinking, reasoning, and deciding He has lots of ideas on how we can reason better We are easily fooled by advertisements, the way they are constructed and the words used I liked the way he identified how our thinking is influenced before he gave the tools to think in a better way I liked his section on cost benefit analysis and loss aversion I ve done that with stocks myself I was also very interested in his section about how the Chinese think differently than Westerners I could never hold contradiction in my mind but they can Something else from the book is that I will certainly behesitant about believing a statement that begins, A recent study shows or A recent survey indicates This book is not a quick read and, unfortunately, those who probably need to read it the most will not I guess I missed the tools aspect as per the title of this book I read this book thanks to Blinkist.The key message in this book Everyone wants to be rational, but there are common and invisible habits that prevent us from thinking objectively By noticing such traps and defending ourselves against them, we can avoid irrationality and make logical choices Actionable Advice Use Occam s Razor to find the simplest solution Sometimes we re faced with situations in whichthan one theory is correct How do you know which one to trust Go with an approach na I read this book thanks to Blinkist.The key message in this book Everyone wants to be rational, but there are common and invisible habits that prevent us from thinking objectively By noticing such traps and defending ourselves against them, we can avoid irrationality and make logical choices Actionable Advice Use Occam s Razor to find the simplest solution Sometimes we re faced with situations in whichthan one theory is correct How do you know which one to trust Go with an approach named after Franciscan friar William of Ockham called Occam s Razor It goes like this always pick the simplest theory Why Well, easier theories are easier to test and model mathematically Plus, complicated theories rarely explain evidence as well as simple ones do.Suggested further reading Drunk Tank Pink by Adam AlterDrunk Tank Pink probes the hidden psychological and social influences that shape the way we see, think, feel, and act in the world


About the Author: Richard E. Nisbett

Is a well known author, some of his books are a fascination for readers like in the Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking book, this is one of the most wanted Richard E Nisbett author readers around the world.


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