[Ebook] ➤ The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire Author Kyle Harper – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk

The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire Kyle Harper s The Fate of Rome is the intellectual heir to Jared Diamond s Collapse How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed Where Diamond looked at how environmental change led to the collapse of several smaller civilizations around the world, Harper argues that climate change and disease helped push one of the largest and most successful empires in history over the edge Despite the title of this book, Harper doesn t quite argue that climate change and disease alone led to the collapse of R Kyle Harper s The Fate of Rome is the intellectual heir to Jared Diamond s Collapse How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed Where Diamond looked at how environmental change led to the collapse of several smaller civilizations around the world, Harper argues that climate change and disease helped push one of the largest and most successful empires in history over the edge Despite the title of this book, Harper doesn t quite argue that climate change and disease alone led to the collapse of Rome in the fifth and sixth centuries Like Diamond, he acknowledges that humans have agency and the policies of the later emperors also contributed to Rome s decline However, Harper does show that climate change and disease sapped Rome of its resilience, which was critical to its ability to dominate the Mediterranean for hundred of years.The peak of Roman influence occurred during a warmer, wetter period in the Mediterranean the Roman climatic optimum that peaked during the latter half of the second century This meant among other things that food production wasstable and inhibited the introduction of certain diseases This also led to rapid population growth Unlike its enemies, Rome could replenish its armies relatively quickly after defeat During this period, Rome had a large margin for error and could afford to suffer military setbacks.With the shift in climate, food production became less reliable as areas like Egypt, which had once been the breadbasket of the empire, suddenly became too dry to grow the same crop yields Meanwhile, several pandemics wracked the empire, including smallpox Antonine Plague of 165 , ebola Cyprian Plague of 250 , and bubonic Justinian Plague of 541 These sapped the empire of manpower and made it much harder for the central government to recruit new soldiers for the army The famous Hun migration from Central Asia to Europe, which pushed the Goths towards Rome, was also likely driven by climate change The Roman state was poorly equipped to handle these environmental challenges Roman cities were densely populated and had poor sanitation, allowing communicable diseases to spread easily Moreover, the famous Roman transportation network allowed diseases to go from one corner of Europe to the other in short order On top of that, Roman medical practice had no understanding of germs, so medical techniques, such as bloodletting, often made the problem worse.I have read many other books about ancient Rome and so I had heard about the various plagues and signs of climate change, but never realized just how much stress they put on the Roman state until Harper put all the pieces together He amasses a wealth of climatological and biological evidence to show just how much the Mediterranean had changed from Augustus to Justinian I appreciated that he took the time to explain how we know what we know about the ancient world, as well as the remaining gaps in our knowledge.Given our current concerns about climate change and pandemics, The Fate of Rome feels like a book just as much about the present as about the past Harper doesn t spend too much time on the parallels, perhaps because they are so obvious There are of course differences between our globalized world and the Roman Empire For one thing, we have a much better scientific understanding of diseases However, Harper s book is an important reminder that human civilization ultimately depends upon the vagaries of nature.Evenso than Jared Diamond s Collapse, this is a dense book Harper doesn t spend much time providing background on ancient Rome or discussing the alternative theories for Rome s fall I highly recommend readers readers acquaint themselves with the subject before tackling this book I d recommend Peter Heather s Empires and Barbarians The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe or Adrian Goldsworthy s How Rome Fell Death of a Superpower Highly recommended for readers interested in ancient Rome or environmental history Note I received a copy of this book in exchange for an honest review A Sweeping New History Of How Climate Change And Disease Helped Bring Down The Roman EmpireHere Is The Monumental Retelling Of One Of The Most Consequential Chapters Of Human History The Fall Of The Roman Empire The Fate Of Rome Is The First Book To Examine The Catastrophic Role That Climate Change And Infectious Diseases Played In The Collapse Of Rome S Power A Story Of Nature S Triumph Over Human AmbitionInterweaving A Grand Historical Narrative With Cutting Edge Climate Science And Genetic Discoveries, Kyle Harper Traces How The Fate Of Rome Was Decided Not Just By Emperors, Soldiers, And Barbarians But Also By Volcanic Eruptions, Solar Cycles, Climate Instability, And Devastating Viruses And Bacteria He Takes Readers From Rome S Pinnacle In The Second Century, When The Empire Seemed An Invincible Superpower, To Its Unraveling By The Seventh Century, When Rome Was Politically Fragmented And Materially Depleted Harper Describes How The Romans Were Resilient In The Face Of Enormous Environmental Stress, Until The Besieged Empire Could No Longer Withstand The Combined Challenges Of A Little Ice Age And Recurrent Outbreaks Of Bubonic PlagueA Poignant Reflection On Humanity S Intimate Relationship With The Environment, The Fate Of Rome Provides A Sweeping Account Of How One Of History S Greatest Civilizations Encountered, Endured, Yet Ultimately Succumbed To The Cumulative Burden Of Nature S Violence The Example Of Rome Is A Timely Reminder That Climate Change And Germ Evolution Have Shaped The World We Inhabit In Ways That Are Surprising And Profound ➻ Their Language of Love Download ➼ Author Bapsi Sidhwa – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk Kyle Harper Traces How The Fate Of Rome Was Decided Not Just By Emperors !!> KINDLE ➚ Turbulence ❦ Author Samit Basu – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk Soldiers [KINDLE] ❃ Der letzte Held ❆ Samit Basu – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk And Barbarians But Also By Volcanic Eruptions Free ↠ Agua By Bapsi Sidhwa – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk Solar Cycles [Ebook] Winter Evenings By Navtej Sarna – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk Climate Instability !!> Ebook ➭ The Brave ➮ Author Rachna Bisht Rawat – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk And Devastating Viruses And Bacteria He Takes Readers From Rome S Pinnacle In The Second Century [Ebook] ↠ The Best of Samaithu Paar Author S. Meenakshi Ammal – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk When The Empire Seemed An Invincible Superpower [KINDLE] ❅ Tiger Thief (Tiger Thief, ❥ Michaela Clarke – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk To Its Unraveling By The Seventh Century [Read] ➲ Tracking Globalization Author J.S . Sodhi – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk When Rome Was Politically Fragmented And Materially Depleted Harper Describes How The Romans Were Resilient In The Face Of Enormous Environmental Stress [Reading] ➶ Eagles Gate (Tiger Thief, ➬ Michaela Clarke – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk Until The Besieged Empire Could No Longer Withstand The Combined Challenges Of A Little Ice Age And Recurrent Outbreaks Of Bubonic PlagueA Poignant Reflection On Humanity S Intimate Relationship With The Environment [Epub] ↠ Cave of Wonders (Infinity Ring, Author Matthew J. Kirby – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk The Fate Of Rome Provides A Sweeping Account Of How One Of History S Greatest Civilizations Encountered [BOOKS] ✯ Wise and Otherwise/The Old Man and his God/The Day I Stopped Drinking Milk ✴ Sudha Murty – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk Endured [Reading] ➶ Indian Renaissance ➽ Sanyal Sanjeev – Ralphslaurensoutlet.co.uk Yet Ultimately Succumbed To The Cumulative Burden Of Nature S Violence The Example Of Rome Is A Timely Reminder That Climate Change And Germ Evolution Have Shaped The World We Inhabit In Ways That Are Surprising And Profound I love books about classic history andif it is on ancient empires such as the colossal one we know as The Roman Empire, that s why I chose to read this book that dealt with how the climate and changes to it impacted the empire and might have even precipitated it s fall But this book is not easy read, it deals with climate charts, there is terminology that will not sound familiar to most historians and had a lot of charts about demographics and environmental impact What I m trying to say I love books about classic history andif it is on ancient empires such as the colossal one we know as The Roman Empire, that s why I chose to read this book that dealt with how the climate and changes to it impacted the empire and might have even precipitated it s fall But this book is not easy read, it deals with climate charts, there is terminology that will not sound familiar to most historians and had a lot of charts about demographics and environmental impact What I m trying to say here is that if you are looking for an easy read about the Roman Empire and why it fell this is not the book for you, that being said if you are looking for anuanced point of view backed up with science as to another probable reason why the Roman Empire fell then you might enjoy this book but be ready to take it slow It was kind of scary to read this book while there is an actual pandemic going around the world as I m writing this Another decline and fall theory for the perennial pastime of expounding on what did in the Romans This book pins the blame on climate change and disease These games are fun like trying to look at stills of the grassy knoll it can only go so far before becoming guesswork and speculation but fun to entertain the ideas especially if you are Roman Empire buff.Update 7 4 2020 Upon second reading I realized how much evidence and detail the author brings to his argument from genetic disease testing, Another decline and fall theory for the perennial pastime of expounding on what did in the Romans This book pins the blame on climate change and disease These games are fun like trying to look at stills of the grassy knoll it can only go so far before becoming guesswork and speculation but fun to entertain the ideas especially if you are Roman Empire buff.Update 7 4 2020 Upon second reading I realized how much evidence and detail the author brings to his argument from genetic disease testing, Archeological evidence from bones, numismatics, even beryllium samples from ice cores to gauge the amount of incoming sunlight to figure out climate shifts The author s argument that climate change and disease outbreaks weakened the empire and made it too fragile to take the shocks coming in from the Asian Steppes This is no armchair exercise but a carefully put together case taking in almost every line of available evidence to explain the fall of Rome Definitely worth the read in our climate challenged and pandemic stricken globe Harper s book doesn t replace other books on the collapse of the Roman Empire or Empires , but supplements them usefully While other historians emphasise certain social or political conditions that underlay the collapses of the Roman polities, or the impact of certain decisions or events, Harper puts all these in a environmental context that shows how variations in climate, waves of pandemics and the economic impacts of both formed the rolling waves on which the micro level events rode By mar Harper s book doesn t replace other books on the collapse of the Roman Empire or Empires , but supplements them usefully While other historians emphasise certain social or political conditions that underlay the collapses of the Roman polities, or the impact of certain decisions or events, Harper puts all these in a environmental context that shows how variations in climate, waves of pandemics and the economic impacts of both formed the rolling waves on which the micro level events rode By marrying recent modern climate science data and medical knowledge of disease vectors, he is able to map archaeology and a new perspective on the sources to give political events and social changes a wider context.This will probably not sit well with those who have ideological needs to attribute Rome s rise toabstract forces e.g admirable values like fortitude and constancy or its fall to sinister outside influences Christianity or an influx of foreigners It definitely won t sit well with those who have a misty eyed and romantic view of the Romans shaped by Hollywood images of pristine, white marble cities with baths and running water Harper takes some delight in making it clear exactly how dirty, smelly and disease ridden major Roman cities actually were But it makes for a fresh new way of reading about the political ups and downs Readers looking for a narrative history with entertaining anecdotes will be disappointed, as a lot of the book is technical and goes into great detail on the underpinning science But those of us who like to look at familiar events from a new angle will find this book an eye opener Absurdly stunning book..I think it will take its place as maybe the great book of the end of the Roman Empire yes I know there are massive contenders for that title It looks at the Fall of Rome factoring in climate change and disease In a nutshell, the height of Rome occurred during a climactic warm spell, the start of the long decline corresponds with the warm period becoming not so warm then worse Also, he looks at 3 major epidemics and the epidemiology of them that were body blows to Absurdly stunning book..I think it will take its place as maybe the great book of the end of the Roman Empire yes I know there are massive contenders for that title It looks at the Fall of Rome factoring in climate change and disease In a nutshell, the height of Rome occurred during a climactic warm spell, the start of the long decline corresponds with the warm period becoming not so warm then worse Also, he looks at 3 major epidemics and the epidemiology of them that were body blows to the Roman Empire and since the last plague was Bubonic and occurred in 541, it also deals with what became the Byzantine Empire It s an incredibly researched, well written all encompassing history..climate, disease, Roman work, medicine, death patterns, floods, farming..everythingI can t rave enough.this is a masterpiece Decent book If Goodreads gave half stars, I d give it 3.5 But a lot of it seemed fairly basic, so I wasn t going to give it four stars.This book has a different take on Rome s fall Instead of looking at Huns or Goths or Christians or internal politics to explain Rome s fall, author Kyle Harper looks at the environment He starts by noting that Rome s peak came in an era called the Roman Climate Optimum, which as the name implies was an era where the weather really helped Rome prosper It Decent book If Goodreads gave half stars, I d give it 3.5 But a lot of it seemed fairly basic, so I wasn t going to give it four stars.This book has a different take on Rome s fall Instead of looking at Huns or Goths or Christians or internal politics to explain Rome s fall, author Kyle Harper looks at the environment He starts by noting that Rome s peak came in an era called the Roman Climate Optimum, which as the name implies was an era where the weather really helped Rome prosper It was an era where the climate was warm, wet, and stable So you had good weather for growing crops and maintaining a large population and a prosperous empire From 150 450, Rome s climate became less stable, and then came the 6th century volcanic eruptions that fucked everything up Plus disease plays a role in hurting Rome.In the glory years, volcanoes were dormant and growth ensued Rainfall was heavier than normal Deforestation occurred, and was consequential By the 120s, a drought hit northern Africa, signalling the good old days were coming to an end Plague hit Rome in 166 AD The empire had 75 million people at the time and lots of internal trade This went on and off through 180 The social development had created biological diversity Pathogens were likely increased by the urbanization Deaths, even before the plague, tended to spike in August and September, indicating stomach intestinal diseases Malaria, TB, and lepracy were all common The big plague led to an increase in religious devotion centered on Apollo He was a big deal before, but never like this The best guess is that the plague was smallpox People have estimated it killed from 2% to 33% of the people from 1.5 to 25 million Silver mining collapsed, prices skyrocketed and rent prices went down Best guess here 10 20% died The Roman Climate Optimum gave way to the Late Roman Transition by the late 2nd century By the later part of the century, drought hit the Mediterranean, especially in the south and east The Nile had some weak flows A plague came up from Ethiopia by the 250s A 2nd wave came the next decade It was maybe influenza and Harper even floats the possibility of ebola Uh, the first known case of ebola in humans is in the 1960s, so color me skeptical Around this time the empire really started to fragment, but it rallied There was also persecution of Christians around this time.Aridity along the Eurasian steppe led to the migration of groups like the Huns Eventually the climate stabilized as the population went up in France and Germany But central Asia stayed dry and the Huns moved into Europe outright Rome fell In the late Roman early Byzantine world, rats came and brought a new plague during the time of Justinian There had been a revival of Eurasian trade 536 was the year without a summer Plague hit and social order collapses Maybe half the population died More outbreaks came From 542 619, it came once every 15 years It came twotimes by the mid 8th century Pope Gregory the Great responded to the plague with a ritual parade of mournful prayer The 530s kicked off a 150 year cold snap the Late Antique Little Ice Age The Byzantine Empire was sapped of its vitality Italy had population collapse The west was hurt harder than the eastern Mediterranean Justinian held on due to ruthlessness The way he handled the Nika riots helped ensure no one rioted here when his empire still demanded the old tax rates Future emperors had to lessen tax intake, though Christianity responded by puttingfocus than ever before on Mary Apocolyptic writing wascommon among Christians and Jews But it all helped set the stage for Islam Looking over my notes, it s been than I recall when reading it But it also had dry spells that I didn t get much out of And it was a bit circular in it s timelining, going forward then doubling back and circles this way then then Overall though, it is an interesting book Summary 1 While Marcus Aurelius held the reins, a pandemic interrupted the economic and demographic expansion of the Roman empire.2 In the middle of the 3rd century, a cocktail of drought, plague, and political turmoil led to the unforeseen and precipitous dissolution of the empire It was, however, determinedly rebuilt, with a new emperor, a new system of governance, and in due time a new Mythos.3 The coherence of this new empire was splintered in the late 4th and early 5th centuries Th Summary 1 While Marcus Aurelius held the reins, a pandemic interrupted the economic and demographic expansion of the Roman empire.2 In the middle of the 3rd century, a cocktail of drought, plague, and political turmoil led to the unforeseen and precipitous dissolution of the empire It was, however, determinedly rebuilt, with a new emperor, a new system of governance, and in due time a new Mythos.3 The coherence of this new empire was splintered in the late 4th and early 5th centuries The entire Eurasian steppe seemed to rest against the edifice of the empire s power in brand new and unsustainable ways, and the western part of it tumbled.4 In the east, there was a resurgent Empire, but unfortunately, this was violently brought to a halt by one of the worst environmental disasters in recorded history the double strike of bubonic plague and a little bit of ice age for good measure The later centuries Roman history were an age of endemic and pandemic disease The empire was shaken thrice by mortality events with such wide and striking geographical reach In 165 AD the Antonine plague erupted most probably due to smallpox In 249 AD, an undefined pathogen scoured the territories of Roman reign And in 541 AD, the first rampant pandemic of Yersinia pestis, the agent that authors the bubonic plague, arrived and dawdled for over all of 200 years The enormity of these biological catastrophes is almost mystifying and should serve as a stern warning for the times to come A fascinating foray into fields I didn t even know existed A book I couldn t stop telling friends about. Scholarly nonfiction is always so hard to rate Is this examination of the impacts of disease and climate on the fall of the Roman empire interesting and important Yes, very much so Do I have enough detailed background on the minutia of Roman history to independently evaluate the strength of this examination That s a big, fat no It is a very good sign however that the footnotes and appendices are over a quarter of the pages in my copy, and that the author is a professor of classics, so I ll Scholarly nonfiction is always so hard to rate Is this examination of the impacts of disease and climate on the fall of the Roman empire interesting and important Yes, very much so Do I have enough detailed background on the minutia of Roman history to independently evaluate the strength of this examination That s a big, fat no It is a very good sign however that the footnotes and appendices are over a quarter of the pages in my copy, and that the author is a professor of classics, so I ll take him at his word My studies of quaternary geology also jive with the trends described Now, was this book a readable, well written page turner Yes, to the extent that this type of study can ever be, but of course that also means sections that are rather dry and that require concentration from the reader This doesn t bother me, I knew what I was biting into And it was full of delicious thoughts my brain feels bigger for having consumed this book I wish it had the life changing, revelatory quality and poetical prose, perfect example of the genre ness I personally need in order to give this sort of text 5 stars Alas, call me picky I ll still be thinking about this for a long time and will be glad to have it on the shelf


About the Author: Kyle Harper

Professor of Classics and Letters and Senior Vice President and Provost at the University of Oklahoma His research topics are the social and economic history of the Roman Empire and the early middle ages, and the environmental and population history of the first millennium, exploring the impact of climate change and disease on the history of civilization.from


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